BALFOUR, ARTHUR JAMES, EARL OF°


BALFOUR, ARTHUR JAMES, EARL OF°
BALFOUR, ARTHUR JAMES, EARL OF° (1848–1930), British statesman, signatory of the balfour declaration . In 1902, he became prime minister, but was defeated in the general election of 1905. He returned to Asquith's coalition as first lord of the admiralty in 1915 and served as foreign secretary in Lloyd George's coalition government, formed in December 1916. Balfour began to take an interest in the Jewish question in 1902–03, when herzl conducted negotiations with joseph chamberlain , the British colonial secretary, and with Lord Lansdowne, the foreign secretary, regarding Jewish settlement in areas adjoining Palestine, such as the Sinai Peninsula. In 1906 he met chaim weizmann in Manchester and was impressed by his personality. Balfour's interest in Zionism revived and grew more intense during World War I, when he became foreign secretary, in which capacity he signed the Balfour Declaration of Nov. 2, 1917. He was enthusiastically welcomed by the Jewish population when he visited Palestine in 1925 to attend the dedication ceremony of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, at which he delivered the opening address. His anthology, Speeches on Zionism (1928), was translated into Hebrew. The motivation behind Balfour's attraction to Zionism has been the subject of conjecture. Being a rationalist it is doubtful whether religious tradition was a factor although his biographer blanche dugdale introduces his Scottish ancestry with its Old Testament tradition. A more likely theory is that of Leonard Stein, who points out that Balfour had spoken out against the persecution of the Jews saying "The treatment of the race has been a disgrace to Christendom" and he saw the establishment of a Jewish state as an historic act of amends. Streets were named after him in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. There is also a Balfour Forest at Ginnegar, and a moshav, balfouriyyah , founded in 1922 in the Jezreel Valley. The Balfour family continued the tradition of interest in the Zionist movement. Robert Arthur Lytton 3rd Earl of Balfour (1902–1969), his nephew, supported youth aliyah . In 1939 he offered the family estate and home, Whittingham, to a Jewish committee as a training school for refugee boys and girls from Germany. Balfour's niece and biographer Blanche Dugdale worked in the political department of the Jewish Agency in London as a close collaborator of Chaim Weizmann. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. Dugdale, A.J. Balfour, 2 vols. (1939); K. Young, A.J. Balfour (1963); L. Stein, Balfour Declaration (1961). (Encyclopaedia Hebraica)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Balfour, Arthur James Balfour, 1st earl of, Viscount Traprain — ▪ prime minister of United Kingdom born July 25, 1848, Whittinghame, East Lothian, Scot. died March 19, 1930, Woking, Surrey, Eng.  British statesman who maintained a position of power in the British Conservative Party for 50 years; he was prime… …   Universalium

  • Balfour,Arthur James — Bal·four (bălʹfo͝or , fôr , fōr ), Arthur James. First Earl of Balfour. 1848 1930. British prime minister (1902 1905) who later served as foreign secretary under David Lloyd George (1916 1919). In 1917 he promised British support for a national… …   Universalium

  • Balfour, Arthur James Balfour, Earl of — (1848–1930)    British statesman and Zionist. In 1906, Dr Chaim WEIZMANN, then lecturer in chemistry at Manchester University, was introduced to the Tory Opposition leader, Arthur Balfour. In explaining to him the historical roots of Zionism,… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Arthur James Balfour — Arthur James Balfour, seit 1922 1. Earl of Balfour (* 25. Juli 1848 in Whittingehame, East Lothian, Großbritannien; † 19. März 1930 in Fisher s Hill nahe Woking, Surrey, Großbritannien) war ein britischer Politiker. Leben und Wirken …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Balfour, Arthur J. — (1848–1930)    Arthur J. Balfour, First Earl Balfour of Wittinghame, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1902 to 1905 in succession to his uncle Lord Salisbury, and later Foreign Secretary under David Lloyd George from 1916 to 1919.    Known …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Balfour (of Whittingehame), Arthur James, 1st Earl — born July 25, 1848, Whittinghame, East Lothian, Scot. died March 19, 1930, Woking, Surrey, Eng. British statesman. The nephew of the marquess of Salisbury, Balfour served in Parliament (1874–1911) and in his uncle s government as secretary for… …   Universalium

  • Arthur James Balfour — noun English statesman; member of the Conservative Party (1848 1930) • Syn: ↑Balfour, ↑1st Earl of Balfour • Instance Hypernyms: ↑statesman, ↑solon, ↑national leader …   Useful english dictionary

  • Arthur James Balfour — n. (1848 1930) First Earl of Balfour, British statesman and writer, British Prime Minister between the years 1902 to 1905 …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Arthur Balfour, 1. Earl of Balfour — Arthur James Balfour, seit 1922 1. Earl of Balfour (* 25. Juli 1848 in Whittingehame, East Lothian, Großbritannien; † 19. März 1930 in Fisher s Hill nahe Woking, Surrey, Großbritannien) war ein britischer Politiker. Leben und Wirken …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Arthur Earl of Balfour — Arthur James Balfour, seit 1922 1. Earl of Balfour (* 25. Juli 1848 in Whittingehame, East Lothian, Großbritannien; † 19. März 1930 in Fisher s Hill nahe Woking, Surrey, Großbritannien) war ein britischer Politiker. Leben und Wirken …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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